Geographic

The Republic of Panama is a large isthmus strip with a total area of 75,517 km², and 2,210 km² of surface waters, reaching 78,200 km² of total territory. The country is located in Central America at 7° 11' longitude and 9° 37' north latitude.

Boundaries

Main cities and geographical features of Panama. Panama is bounded on the north by the Caribbean Sea and to the south by the Pacific Ocean. Panama shares its eastern border with the Republic of Colombia, and is bordered on the west by the Republic of Costa Rica. Borders: 555 km in total, of which 225 km are with Colombia and 330 km with Costa Rica. Costs: 2,490 km It is politically divided into 9 provinces and 5 indigenous regions.

Formation

Panama's two coastlines are referred to as the Caribbean coast and the Pacific coast, and less frequently described as the North and South coasts, respectively. To the east is Colombia and Costa Rica is to the west. Due to the location and contours of the country, the directions shown on he compass can be surprising. For example, a trip through the Panama Canal from the Pacific Ocean to the Caribbean implies travel not east, but to the northwest, and in Panama City the sunset is to the east over the Pacific Ocean.

Pacific coastal waters are extraordinarily low. A depth of 180 meters is reached only once outside the perimeters of either the Gulf Darien or the Gulf of Chiriquí, and wide mud flats extend up to 70 kilometers seaward from the coast. As a result, the tidal range is extreme. There is a variation of about 70 centimeters between high and low tide, and on the Caribbean coast the contrasts are sharp with more than 7 m on the Pacific coast. Approximately 130 miles above the river Tuira the amplitude still exceeds 5 m.

Relief

Most of the Panamanian territory consists of lowlands (70%). The majority of Panama's population lives in these warm low-lying lands. This category includes the southern lowlands and plains, the hills and plains of the Central Isthmus, the eastern depressions and the northern plains and lowlands. The remaining 30% of Panama territory is highlands. These lands are composed of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. To this group belong Barú Volcano, the Central mountain range, the Northern Eastern Arch, the Southern Eastern Arch, Southern Massif and Volcanic Chain.

Political Division

Panama is divided into 9 provinces, 75 districts, 621 municipalitys and the following 5 indigenous reserves: Guna Yala, Ngäbé-Bugle, Emberá-Wounaán, Madungandí y Wargandí.

Bocas del Toro Province. Capital: Bocas del Toro, located on Colón island and divided into 3 districts. The province is constituted by nine main islands. Its land is suitable for growing bananas and cocoa.
Population: 125,461 inhabitants (2010 census ).
Size: 4,643.9 km².

Coclé Province. The capital is Penonomé and has 6 districts: Natá, La Pintada, Olá, Aguadulce, Antón and Penonomé.
Population: 233,708 inhabitants (2010 census).
Size: 4,927.4 km ². The land is suitable for agriculture and raising livestock.

Colón Province. Its capital is Colón and is divided into the following five districts: Donoso, Chagres, Colón, Portobelo and Santa Isabel, and also into 91 municipalities. It is considered a commercial city for having a Duty-Free Zone and the Panama Canal.
Population: 241,928 inhabitants (2010 census).
Size: 4,868.4 km².

Chiriquí Province. The capital is David and it is divided into 13 districts and 91 municipalities. The 13 districts are: Alanje, Barú, Boquerón, Boquete, Bugaba, David, Dolega, Gualaca, Remedios, Renacimiento, San Félix, San Lorenzo and Tolé.
Population: 416,873 inhabitants (201 census).
Size: 6,547.7 km².

Darién Province. The capital is La Palma and it is the largest and the least populated province. It has two districts: Chepigana and Pinogana.
Population: 48,378 inhabitants (2010 census).
Size: 11,896.5 km².

Herrera Province. Its capital is Chitré and has 6 districts: Las Minas, Los Pozos, Ocú, Parita, Pesé and Santa María, as well as 44 municipalities.
Population: 109,955 inhabitants (2010 census).
Size: 2,340.7 km².

Los Santos Province. Its capital is Las Tablas, and it has 79 municipalities and 7 districts: Guararé, Las Tablas, Los Santos, Macaracas, Pedasí, Pocrí and Tonosí.
Population: 89,592 inhabitants (census 2010).
Size: 3,804.6 km ².

Panama Province. Its capital is Panama and has 11 districts: Arraiján, Balboa,Capira, Chame, Chepo, San Carlos,San Miguelito, Taboga, La Chorrera, Panamá and Chimán, and 97 municipalitys.
Population: 1,713,070 inhabitants (2010 census).
Size: 11,670.92 km².

Veraguas Province. Its capital is Santiago and has 85 municipalities and 12 districts: Atalaya, Calobre, Cañazas, La Mesa, Las Palmas, Mariato, Montijo, Río de Jesús, San Francisco, Santa Fe, Santiago and Soná.
Population: 226,991 inhabitants (2010 census).
Size: 10,629.6 km².

Guna Yala Indigenous Region. Its capital is El Porvenir.
Population: 33,109 inhabitants (2010 census).
Size: 2,340.7 km².

Emberá-Wounaan Indigenous Region. Its capital is Unión Chocó.
Population: 10,001 inhabitants (2010 census).
Size: 4,383.5 km².

Ngäbe-Bugle Indigenous Region. Its capital is Buadidi.
Population: 156,747 inhabitants ( 2010 census).
Size: 6,968 km²

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