Pre - Colonial Period

The population of Mozambique were primitive Bushmen who were hunter-gatherers.
 The great migrations between AD 200/300 of the Bantu people, warriors from the Great Lakes, force these primitive people to leave this area.

Before the VII century, commercial trading posts were established in the coastal area by Swahili Arabs to exchange products of the interior, mainly gold and ivory, for a variety of goods.
 Colonial Incursions

In late XV century commercial Portuguese colonies were established for the purchase of gold intended to be exchanged for Asian spices.
 Initially, the Portuguese people established themselves in coastal areas, where they built Sofala fortress (1505) and occupied the Island of Mozambique (1507). Only later through military conquests, and with the support of missionaries and traders, they began a process of expansion into the interior where they established several trading posts such as Siena (1530), Quelimane (1544).

The aim was no longer to simple control trade of gold, but rather to control access to the areas of gold production. This commercial expansion phase was known as gold phase. The next two phases were the ivory and slave trade, became known, due to high demand for these goods by the world market. The flow of these commodities was through deadlines system in the Zambezi valley which represented the first attempt of Portuguese colonization. The "Deadlines" were a kind of feudal system, where Portuguese traders occupied the land that had been donated or earned. The Abolition of Deadlines "by royal decree of 1832 and 1854 created conditions for the emergence of Military States in Zambezi Valley that performed slave trade activities even after the official abolition in 1836 and later in 1842.

In the Mozambican context-Lómué Macua populations were the most affected victims of the slave trade.
 Many of them were exported to Mascarene Islands, Madagascar, Zanzibar, Persian Gulf, Brazil and Cuba until 1850. Cuba was the main slave market of Zambezian origin.
 With the Berlin Conference (1884/1885), Portugal was forced to effectively occupy the territory of Mozambique. Given the military and financial incapacity to do so, the alternative was to lease sovereignty and authority of the vast territories to royal and leasing companies.

Companhia de Moçambique e Companhia do Niassa are typical examples of royal companies. Companhia da Zambézia, Boror, Luabo, Sociedade do Madal, Empresa Agrícola do Lugela and Sena Sugar Estates are examples of leasing companies. The system of companies was used in the North of the river Save.

They were focused mainly on the plantation economy and some work with neighboring countries. The southern provinces of Save River (Inhambane, Gaza and Maputo) remained under direct administration of the colonial power in this region of the country. The provision of services based on recruitment of manpower for South African mines and railways and ports were the mainstream of economic development.
This regional economic division explains the reasons for the asymmetry of royal economy between North and South
The colonial occupation was not peaceful. Mozambicans always imposed an armed resistance to this occupation, the main ones led by Mawewe, Musila, Ngungunhane, Komala, Kaphula, Marave, Molid-Volay and Mataca. For all purposes the so-called pacification of Mozambique has only been achieved by the Portuguese in 20th century.

  Struggle for Independence

 The secular oppression and Portuguese fascist regime would force the people of Mozambique to fight for independence. The struggle for national liberation, was reinitiated by Frelimo (Mozambique Liberation Front). This organization was founded in 1962 as a result of the merger of three movements in exile, that is, UDENAMO (National Democratic Union of Mozambique). MANU (Mozambique National African Union) and UNAMI (National Union of Mozambique Independent). Led by Eduardo Mondlane Chivambo, FRELIMO began the struggle for national liberation on 25 September 1964 in the administrative post of Chai, in Cabo Delgado province.
First president of Frelimo, Eduardo Mondlane, was eventually killed on February 3 1969.Samora Moises Machel was his successor, who proclaimed independence in June 25 1975.Machel was victim of a plane crash incident that is still inexplicable in M'buzini in neighboring South Africa and was succeeded by former President of the Republic Joaquim Alberto Chissano. In the early eighties, the country was confronted with an armed conflict led by RENAMO (Mozambique National Resistance) with the support of the South African apartheid regime.

 This conflict resulted in many victims and destruction of many economic infrastructure and only ended in 1992 with the signature of the Peace Agreement between Frelimo and Renamo. In 1994, the first national democratic elections were held and were won by Frelimo. Frelimo won the 2000 elections as well. In October 2004 the third democratic elections were held.


Christianity: Catholicism and Protestantism (30%)
Islamism: North region (20%)
Traditional cults: (50%)  

Need a Help for Mozambique Visa?
We also provide Visa
Services to Mozambique